The applications of ultrasonic welding are extensive and are found in many industries including electrical and computer, automotive and aerospace, medical, and packaging. Whether two items can be ultrasonically welded is determined by their thickness. If they are too thick this process will not join them. This is the main obstacle in the welding of metals. However, wires, microcircuit connections, sheet metal, foils, ribbons and meshes are often joined using ultrasonic welding. Ultrasonic welding is a very popular technique for bonding thermoplastics. It is fast and easily automated with weld times often below one second and there is no ventilation system required to remove heat or exhaust. This type of welding is often used to build assemblies that are too small, too complex, or too delicate for more common welding techniques.